Contents
Foreword to first edition xi
Acknowledgements xiii
Constants xv

Chapter 1: Welcome
1.1 Welcome 1
1.2 Personal experience 1
1.3 Historical perspective 2
1.4 Structure of this book 3
1.5 Exercise 5

Chapter 2: Background theory
2.1 Introduction 7
2.2 Matter 8
2.3 The electromagnetic field 13
2.4 Classical and quantum physics 19
2.5 Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics 29
2.6 Exercises 38

Chapter 3: Measurement
3.1 Introduction 41
3.2 Units 42
3.3 Key measurement techniques 46
3.4
Environments 56
3.5 Uncertainty 57
3.6 Exercises 58


Chapter 4: Gases: Background theory
4.1 Introduction 61
4.2 The ideal gas model 62
4.3 Calculating microscopic properties 71
4.4 Beyond the ideal gas model 77
4.5 Exercises 78

Chapter 5: Gases: Comparison with experiment
5.1 Introduction 81
5.2 Density 82
5.3 Heat Capacity 87
5.4 Compressibility: a discussion 99
5.5 Thermal conductivity 104
5.6 Speed of sound 111
5.7 Electrical properties 118
5.8 Optical properties 131
5.9 Magnetic properties 139
5.10 Exercises 140


Chapter 6: Solids: Background theory

6.1 Introduction 145
6.2 Molecular solids 146
6.3 Ionic solids 153
6.4 Covalent solids 158
6.5 Metals 161
6.6 Real solids 171
6.7 Exercises 173

Chapter 7: Solids: Comparison with experiment
7.1 Introduction 175
7.2 Density 176
7.3 Compressibility and bulk modulus 182
7.4 Thermal expansivity 187
7.5 Speed of sound 193
7.6 Heat capacity 200
7.7 Electrical properties 216
7.8 Thermal conductivity 237
7.9 Optical properties 245
7.10 Magnetic properties 256
7.11 Exercises 257


Chapter 8: Liquids: Background theory
8.1 Introduction 261
8.2 Bonding in liquids 262
8.3 The structure of liquids 264
8.4 The dynamics of a liquid 270
8.5 Exercises 274

Chapter 9: Liquids: Comparison with experiment
9.1 Introduction 275
9.2 Density 276
9.3 Compressibility and bulk modulus 281
9.4 Thermal expansivity 283
9.5 Speed of sound 286
9.6 Viscosity 290
9.7 Surface energy 293
9.8 Vapour pressure 2989.9 The cell model 302
9.10 Heat capacity 304
9.11 Thermal conductivity 309
9.12 Electrical properties 313
9.13 Optical properties 318
9.14 Exercises 321


Chapter 10: Changes of phase: Background theory

10.1 Introduction 325
10.2 Free energy 326
10.3 Phase transitions 333
10.4 Enthalpy change on transformation 335
10.5 The order of a phase change 337
10.6 Nucleation 339
10.7 Phase diagrams 342
10.8 Exercises 351

Chapter 11: Changes of phase: Comparison with experiment
11.1 Introduction 353
11.2 Data on the solid ¤ liquid & liquid ¤ gas transitions 354
11.3 The solid ¤ liquid transition: melting and freezing 357
11.4 The liquid ¤ gas transition: boiling and condensing 365
11.5 The critical point 367
11.6 Scaling: laws of corresponding states 371
11.7 The solid ¤ gas transition 375
11.8 The triple point 378
11.9 Other types of phase change 380
11.10 Exercises 382


Chapter 12: Questions
12.1 Introduction 385
12.2 Gases 385
12.3 Liquids 391
12.4 Solids 393
12.5 Changes of phase 401

Appendices
Appendix A1: Maxwellian speed distribution of a gas 403
Appendix A2: Derivation of speed of sound formulae 411
Appendix A3: The Gibbs free energy 411
Appendix A4: Einstein and Debye theories of heat capacity 421
Appendix A5: Derivation of formula for bulk modulus 425

Index
Index 427


Acknowledgements

Despite the fact that only one name appears on the cover, and despite the essentially solitary nature of writing, no book of this kind can ever truly be written by a single person. Every author is indebted in all kinds of ways, to all kinds of people, and I am no exception. What follows is a list of the major debts I have incurred while writing this book. I would like to thank my benefactors and ask simply for some time to be able to repay them.

My first, and largest, debt is to Stephanie Bell, my wife, and to Maxwell and Christian, my children. They have tolerated, supported and encouraged me, through months of late nights and working weekends.

My second debt is to the many academic colleagues with whom I have worked over the years. From the Physics Department at Birkbeck College; the Condensed Matter group at University College London; and at the Open University.

My third debt is to those who were kind enough to comment on the First Edition, particularly Bertil Dynefors, Gabe Spalding and Paulo Manuel de Araújo Sá, who produced detailed (and embarrassingly long) lists of errata. Every one of these mistakes has been eliminated!

My fourth debt is to the staff at Taylor and Francis. In particular, Grant Soanes for allowing me the opportunity to work on this revised edition, and Peter Willis for his help, kind words, and attention to detail.

I now work for the UK’s National Physical Laboratory and I would like to thank my many colleagues there who have (often unknowingly) contributed to this book. I would also like to thank David Robinson for permission to take a months leave during which I was able to complete my first revision of the text.

And, as with the first edition, I would like to acknowledge the work of those scientists, living and dead, who have faithfully recorded their observations of the physical world. Without their care and attention to detail, it would not have been possible to write this book.

Finally, if you have any comments, good or bad, I would be happy to receive them. Any helpful comments on the text will be posted on the web site for the book (www.physicsofmatter.com). 

Michael de Podesta

michael@physicsofmatter.com

February 2002